One of the current problems of Diinlang is the lack of vocabulary, or rather, a lack of an up-to-date central resource of the words created.
Over the years this project has been running many words have been tried. Some have entered use, some have been changed, and some have been forgotten along the way.
To try an address this issue, I am creating this page as a dynamic dictionary of Diinlang. Expect this page to expand. Words or meanings may be changed as better alternatives are found.
Keep an eye on the page version number to ensure your wordlist is up-to-date.
mo- : forms comparatives.
no-/non- : negates or makes opposite the meaning of the word to which it is attached. Use is similar to SOME of the uses of the suffix un- in English.
re- is used at the start of some Diinlang words with the same or similar meaning to its use in English.
ve mo- : forms superlatives; “the most…”.
-a : The suffix -a when applied to pronouns and certain animate nouns indicates feminine gender. For nouns the suffix -za is now preferred.
-adre : repetitive modifier
-adu : Created verbs from nouns that are not suited for unmodified use as verbs.
-ali : “of or pertaining to the root”.
-ayt : substrate or produce of a verb.
-ele : patient noun (neuter). Gendered forms -elzo (male) and -elza (female).
-er : possible agent noun ending for inanimates.
-fu : measurement full (eg handful)
-i (-yi)/-hi : forms generic adjectives or adverbs. Generic adjective suffix: “inclined to ~” or “having the quality of ~”. For example, kwahi = watery. Added to a noun it may form a possessive phrase. Deani kwa = Dean's water.
-ibel : forms passive modifiers resembling many English words ending in -ible/-able.
-ija : means to become or begin to be in the state described by the root. It forms inchoative/inceptive verbs. Using the same examples “redija” means “to become red” (“to blush” perhaps?) and “duija” “to start doing”.
-ika : creates a verb meaning the action of making, causing or rendering into the root or causing an object to gain the characteristic of the root. –ika verbs are causative.
-imu : creates verbs from nouns with the meaning of turning something into the root.
-in/-hin : makes a verb into an active participle adjective or verbal noun. As a noun it usually describes a process and/or product of that process.
-ire : forms modifiers expressing time intervals (daily, monthly etc).
-iso : When compounded with a word means closely resembling that quality. Equivalent of -like in English.
-ge : makes a verb into a passive participle adjective or noun designating a completed action.
-kom : has the quality described or includes that specified. literally “with ~ (included)”.
-li : forms adverbs that mean “in the manner of ~”.
-o : The suffix -o when applied to pronouns and certain animate nouns indicates male gender. For nouns the suffix -zo is now preferred.
-or : agent noun for animates. Optionally, -orze. -orzo: male agent(s), -orza female agent(s).
-osi : abundant modifier. ~full, in the sense of “hateful”.
-par : when used as a suffix/compound on a word means something seems to resemble that word. Used like -oid in words like “humanoid”.
-te : -te, when used with a duoverb, indicates that the verb is in past tense.
-z : -z is used on pronouns and certain non-verbs to indicate plurality.
-za : added to animate nouns to indicate female. May or may not be hyphenated.
–zo : added to animate nouns to indicate male. May or may not be hyphenated.
a : a used on its own, marks that the verb it is with is in future tense. Pronounced “ah”. Shortcode : a
ad : to (movement). Zo a kum ad em = He will come to me. “ad” is also used like “at” in English for contexts such as “at 7.00pm”
adin : into.
ad sy: to the side, by, near to.
Adjectives : Adjectives (and adverbs) are often marked by the endings -i, -in, -ge. Attributive adjectives are placed before the noun they describe and between the noun and its determiner or article. Predicative adjectives are placed after the noun. If a copula is used, it is placed between the adjective and noun.
Adverbial-Affix : Creation of new verbs by compounding with adverbs. Link
Adverbs : As modifiers, adverbs are often marked by the endings -i, -in, -ge. The -i ending is optional for well-known and obvious adverbs, such as mal or bon.
ajude : to help or aid.
apis : bee (insect).
as…as : “as” can be used for comparisomes, such as in the English phrasing “You are nearly as tall as me!”. Possibly in Diinlang “as” can be used as a more general purpose conjunction and used instead of “than” even when there is a considerable difference between the items.
at : “At” is used to designate points in space or time, and in most cases replaces the use of “on” in English. It substitutes for “in”, although either can be used when the “within/during” requirement is met.
au : diphthong for [aʊ̯]. In English, this is the sound in “loud”, “ouch”, “plough”, “cow”. In earlier versions of Diinlang “ou” was used. Link
av : “off”; not in operation; not in contact (with). (preposition, adverb and adjective).
ave : bird.
ayen/ayeni/ayenhyu : orange-yellow/gold colour or orange-yellow/gold coloured.
bayj/bayji/bayjhyu : yellow-brown colour or yellow-brown coloured.
bi : to be (verb). When uses as an auxiliary bi indicates the verb tense is progressive/continuous. Spelling be used on some pages. Shortcode : b
blak/blaki/blakhyu : black colour or black coloured.
blu/blui/bluhyu : blue colour or blue coloured.
bohn : bone.
bon/boni : good.
Both : Diinlang does not have specific words for two items, such as “pair”, “both” or “brace” in English. Instead, constructions such as “pan by” (all two), “moje by” (every two) or “jeve by” (each two) are used instead. Such constructions can be used with greater number values.
brun/bruni/brunhyu : brown colour or brown coloured.
buub : boob
Colours : red (red), brun (brown), oren (orange), bayj (yellow-brown), ayen (orange-yellow/gold), yahn (yellow), laym (yellow-green), kwin (green), sian (blue-green/cyan), blu (blue), viol (violet), purp (purple), majn (magenta), pink (pink), blak (black), gri (grey), viyt (white). Link
Copula : copula verbs may be dropped if the meaning is clear. The preferred copula is par (to seem), reminding us that observations and statements are not necessarily reliable. When a more definite statement is warranted, the verbs bi (to be) and ha (to have) may be used. Saying an object “has heat” is preferable to saying it “is hot”.
CV : Consonant(s)-Vowel(s) format. Diinlang uses CV format for many words that are commonly used or particularly useful.
CVC : Consonant(s)-Vowel(s) format. The option of CVC words was introduced into Diinlang when it seemed likely that CVn would not produce enough words. CVC allows for Diinlang words with “hard” endings and for onomatopoeic words.
CVN : Original concept of Diinlang was that all/most words/syllables should have a CVn format. “C” represents a consonant(s), “V” a vowel(s) and “N” a nasal such as -m, -n or -ng. CVN format is mainly verbs or nouns. Issues such as acceptable consonant clusters have yet to be finalized.
de : “De” is used as a non-specific preposition, to be used when the use of po or per is uncertain, or to substitute for on, in or at. It is the closest word that Diinlang has for “of” in that it complements “vo”: “Jon vo kanis” means “Jon’s Dog” while “Kanis de Jon” is “Dog of Jon”. “Book de Shakespeare”, like the English equivalent “Book of Shakespeare”, is a little ambivalent. To stress that something is about or by a subject we may use “po” or “on”.
Deanlang : Constructed language project. My own input begain around 2014.
dek : right (direction)
dep : depth/deep/deepness. Quantity of vertical distance downwards.
dhen : “then” in English. Dhen is a conjunction that is also a preposition. It is used like “and”(e) when the items being described occur in a sequence. In English we say “They got married and had children” but it is more accurate to say “They got married then had children”.
dia : through.
Diinlang : Diinlang when spelt with two i's represents the language in prototype form.
du : to do (verb). Using du as an auxiliary indicates the verb is to be treated as a full-infinitive. Used with a noun it converts the noun to a verb.
Duoverb : Duoverbs are a small group of verbs in Diinlang that have separate present and past tense form. Duoverbs are typically verbs of communication.
duzn : dozen, the number 12. Used when dealing in dozenal (base 12) numbers.
e/eh : and (conjunction). Shortcode : e
eje : any
eks : out. Shortcode : x
ekwis : horse (animal)
elva : the number 11 when dealing in base 12/dozenal numbers. One less than duzn.
em : I; first person singular pronoun. Alternative to mi.
emz : We; first person plural pronoun. Alternative to miz.
emask : please
English : Many conlangs avoid using English. English has many useful single syllable words, many of a suitable CV or CVn format.
eo : and/or; pronounced “ə-oh”
ergo : Ergo is “so” or “thus” in English, and presents a consequence:
“He gambled well last night ergo he smoked a cigar to celebrate.” The shorter and more versatile English word “so”, which is also used in Diinlang, may be more useful.
fe : fe was introduced in Diinlang 2.1 to replace du for “to do”. It allowed the use of “f” as a shortcode. Du may be reinstated as it is better phonetically.
felis : cat (animal).
felisjhenza : catwoman.
fing : thing.
fiyr/fyr : fire
flam : flame.
flamzhan : inflamable
fohn : phone
fohnla : to communicate by phone.
fohnry : to communicate by texting
fohnyak : to speak by phone.
gau : nine (9).
gaung : tallness/shortness. Thick in vertical distance/substance upwards.
ge : to get (verb). Creates passive voice when used as an auxiliary with another verb. Shortcode : g
gri/grihi/grihyu : grey colour or grey coloured.
go : to go. Used much the same way as the English verb.
grohs : 144; 100 in base 12/dozenal numbers.
gun : a gun, firearm or item shaped like one.
h & u : when there is a vowel clash between syllables or words that are being compounded, a “-h-” is inserted. In the event of as consonant clash, “-u-” is used.
ha : to have (verb). This may be the better choice since it is phonetically more distinct. Short code : h
he : to have (verb). Creates perfect tense when used as auxiliary. Note that the vowel sound is very short. ha may be phonetically better. Shortcode : h
hey : greeting or salutation. Time independent. Pronounced : “hay”.
hin : back.
hyu, -hyu : colour, hue
iban : possible auxiliary verb or preverbal marker for habitual tense.
if…o : Correlative conjunction used like “whether…or” or “if…or” in English.
if…dhen : Correlative conjunction used like “if…then” in English.
if…e : Correlative conjunction used like “if…and” in English.
if…so : Correlative conjunction used like “just as…so” in English.
ija : begin to cause, start to be.
imi : than/between/within/during
in : in. “In” has a wider range of use in Diinlang than in English. When travelling, you travel in a vehicle rather than by a vehicle. The exception is when you are physically on top of something such as a horse, camel or bike. Then you travel on, rather than by or in. In can be used for when you are within a location, or for during a time period. You would be “in France” or “in Summer”. Italian also uses “in” for constructions such that indicate travel towards a large area. “Vai in Francia” rather than “go to France”. Shortcode : i. Note that some programs automatically capitalize a solitary letter “i” if set for English.
it : neuter third person pronoun for inanimates.
itz : neuter third person pronoun for multiple inanimates. Used when plurality must be emphasized.
iy : the diphthong [aɪ], pronounced as in “eye”, “aye”, “-igh”, “lied” and various other spellings in English. When used within a Diinlang word and placed after a consonant other than “h”, the i may be omitted and just a y used. Link
iso : iso/the same/equal/also. Note in Diinlang the first letter is pronounced as a short-i sound, rather than [aɪ] as used in English.
je/jez : je a/an. indefinite article. jez: some, plural form definite article. When jez is placed before a numeral or equivalent, it has the same meaning as “approximate, about, circa”. Shortcode : j, jz
jeve : each
jhen : person. jhen-zo: male person, jhen-za: female person. Plural means “people”.
ju : reason; to reason.
kanis : dog (canis)
kanen : gratitude.
ke : “what?”. Used as an interrogative or marks a clause or sentence as a question when placed at the start or end. Its resemblance to the Franco-Latin “que” may see it used as a relative pronoun (English “that”) or for comparison (like English “than”).
ke it? : what (thing)? interrogative.
ke jhen? : who?/what person? interrogative.
ke jeve? : Which one? (What each?) interrogative.
ke li? : what manner?/how? interrogative.
ke tem? : when?/what time? interrogative.
ke to? : how big? interrogative.
ke toz? how much? interrogative.
ke un? : which one?/who? interrogative.
ke vang? : what here?/what is this? interrogative.
ke ving? : what there?/ what is that? interrogative.
ke ze? : who? interrogative.
klok : a clock.
ko : small, little (quality)
kodep : shallow; not deep.
kogaung : vertically short; not tall.
koleng : a short distance; having little horizontal depth.
kovid : narrow; lacking in width.
koz : small, few (quantity/number)
kom : with.
kuk: cook, to cook.
kum : to come (movement)
kwa : water.
kwah : “kwah” is used like “than” in English and separates things being compared. Unlike “than” in English, it can be used in a statement that things are equal or similar if the rest of the sentence is suitably constructed.
kwin/kwini/kwinhyu : green colour or green coloured.
lang : language.
la/late : to say (duoverb) non-past/past. Shortcode : l, lt
laym/laymi/laymhyu : yellow-green colour or yellow-green coloured.
Lego Words : Where possible new words in Diinlang should be created by compounding. To this end the most commonly used or most useful words in Diinlang are of a form that can easily be combined.
leng : distance, measure, dimension; horizontal distance/length
lev : left (direction)
lexverbs : verbs in Diinlang that are not duoverbs.
ler (lerte) : to read (duoverb?)
li : manner or way of doing something.
likwe : liquid.
ling, -ling : young and small
lo : low
majn/majni/majnhyu : magenta/purple-red colour or magenta/purple-red coloured.
mal/mali : bad
matra : mother
mek : machine/mechanism.
mete : measuring device or instrument; a meter.
mi : I; first person singular pronoun. Alternative to em. Mi is abbreviated with the single letter “m” so it is inevitable that it will also be read as “em”. The spelling me is used on some old pages. Shortcode : m
miz : We; first person plural pronoun. Alternative to emz.
Modifier : generic term for adjective or adverb.
moje : every.
moko/mokoz : lesser, littler, smaller/fewer.
mota/motaz : bigger, larger/many, more numerous.
nau : now/present
NAAV : words that belong to noun, adjective, adverb or verb parts of speech.
ne : conjunction serving as an exclusive “and”. Has the meaning “but”, ”yet”, “nevertheless” and “however”.
ne…ne : Correlative conjunction used like “not only…but (also)” in English.
no/non : no, not. non is used for vowel clashes when forming compound words. Shortcode : n
no…no : Correlative conjunction used like “neither…nor” in English.
noje : nothing
nojhen : no-one/no-body
nokom : without
nom : name.
noniso : uneven, different, not-level,
nyam : to chew
o/oh : or (conjunction). Shortcode o
o…o : Correlative conjunction used like “either…or” in English.
om : optional marker to indicate accompanying noun or pronoun is the direct object of the statement. When used before a predicative adjective om may function like a copula.
on : “On” sees less use as a preposition than in English. It is generally reserved for when physically on an object. You ride on a bike, meet on a bridge or are on a mountain. In most cases that English would use “on”, in Diinlang the preposition “at” would be used instead. You meet at the high street, at the bank, at one at Tuesday. “Veng” (near) may be used instead. The other use of “on” has the meaning “about”. Rather than having a book about Shakespeare or book of Shakespeare, in Diinlang the translation would be a book on Shakespeare. Constructions such as “talk about…” could either be “talk of (de)…” or “talk on (on)…”
oren/oreni/orenhyu : orange colour or orange coloured.
ovis : sheep (animal).
oy : the diphthong [ɔɪ̯] in Diinlang. The sound in ”oil” and “boy” in English.
pan : all, whole. Can mean “every”.
panje : everything/all things.
pan-yu : all of you
par : (copulative verb) “to seem to be”, “to appear to be”.
per : for/leave for, associated with/with respect to. “Per” is used in Italian, English and Diinlang. Its use in Italian is a little more broader than in English and these applications should also be used in Diinlang. “Per” is used for “for” in uses such as “leave for Rome” or “bus for Milan”. It has the meaning “for/to” and now becomes the complement of “po”. It can also have the meanings “during” (per annum), “for each” (per person), “to each/ in each” (per metre, per hour), “in accordance” (per your request), “by means of” (Li skribis per plumo, Sono passato per il centro) and in some cases mean “as, with, by, via”. Shortcode : p
per li : because
per se : meaning same as in English. For itself, in itself, for myself etc.
pink/pinki/pinkhyu : pink colour or pink coloured.
Plurality : Nouns are made plural by using an article or other determiner ending in -z, or using a quantifier or numerical determiner of a value greater than one. Plural pronouns end in -z.
po : “Po” means “from” and is derived from “apo”, used in a number of other languages. It is used with various verbs and directives for constructions such as “down-from” or “run-from”. Po is used to construct more logical terms. Rather than saying “a play by Shakespeare”, Diinlang would say “a play from/po Shakespeare”.
potsu : Word used for rain in earlier versions of Diinlang. “Rayn” is probably a better alternative.
pro : in favour of.
purp/purpi/purphyu : purple colour or purple coloured.
re : On its own, re is used to mean “again”. “la ving re!” = “say that again!”. “re la ving!” = “repeat that!”.
rekum : to return.
red/redi/redhyu : red or red coloured.
reta : very
run : to run. This is the same as the English verb and used in many of the same ways in a variety of meanings.
ry/ryte, riy/riyte : to write (duoverb) present/past
sang : blood
se : reflexive pronoun. When combined with a pronoun makes a phrase meaning “myself”, “yourself”, “themselves” etc. When uses as the object of a verb clause refers back to the subject.
Shortcode : Shortcodes are single characters that represent commonly used words in written Diinlang. Link
sian/siani/sianhyu : blue-green/cyan colour or blue-green/cyan coloured.
Single Syllable Strategy : Policy in Diinlang that the most commonly used or most useful words should be a single syllable/phoneme for easy compounding.
siy/sy : side (physical location).
Sixteen Vowels : Derived from Pitman phonetics. The short vowels are a, e, i, o, u, uh. The long vowels are ah, ay, ee, oh, or, uu. The diphthongs are au, iy, oy, yu.
sku : apology
skuz : many apologies.
so: so; used as in English.
sori : sorry
su/suz : relative pronoun used to join two clauses. This can be remembered from the English word “subject”. It is the equivalent of the English “who”, “what”, “which”, or “that” when used in a non-interrogative sense. For “whose” it combines with “vo” as “su vo”.
ta : large, big, great (quality)
tadep : deep.
tagaung : vertically high; tall.
taleng : a long distance; having a lot of horizontal depth.
tavid : wide; broad; abundant in width.
taz : large, big (quantity/number).
te : When used with verbs, te is a preverbal marker to indicate that the verb is in past tense. Shortcode : t
tem : time
temtem : frequent; frequency.
temmete : time measuring device; clock; timer; chronometer.
tok : clock noise.
tra : Diinlang now uses the word “tra” to mean “through”, as is done in several other conlangs. The Diinlang word “dia” also means “through”.
trayn : train.
traleng : horizontal depth
trop/trop ta : too (many)
trop ko, trop koz : too little, too few.
tsageer : 1728; 1000 in base 12/dozenal numbers.
tsau : greeting/hello/leaving/goodbye
tu : Diinlang originally used tu as the second person pronoun. It is retained as some users familiar with some natural languages may find this more intuitive. tu is used exactly the same as yu in Diinlang. The two words are fully interchangeable and one should not be considered less formal than the other.
un : alternate singular indefinite article, equivalent to “1, one, a, or an” in English. It can be pronounced with a long “uu” sound like the French “une”, or short like “en” or “an”. Shortcode form may be the numeral “1”, since “u” is already used for a pronoun. Un may also be used when an impersonal pronoun is required. It is the equivalent of the English use of “one” in context such as “One should always brush one's teeth”.
Uncount/Mass Nouns : Uncount or mass nouns are treated as singular in Diinlang when selecting articles.
un mota : one more, another.
un ta : a lot.
up : up
upgo : to ascend or move upwards
upta : high,
upko : not-high; low down but still above,
val : to fall
van : front
vang : this/here.
vangz : these
ve/vez : “the”. definite article. vez: plural form of definite article. ve/vez used without a noun is used as a third person inanimate pronoun. Shortcode : v, vz
ve vang/ving/vangz/vengz : emphasised use as a demonstative determiner. this/that/these/those.
veng : near
verd : leaves/foliage
vetem : when; the time (that) (non-interrogative).
vid : width; lateral horizontal distance.
ving : that/there.
vingz : those.
viol/violi/violhyu : violet/purple-blue colour or violet/purple-blue coloured.
vo : optional genitive marker used with pronouns and nouns. Placed after the noun or pronoun of the owner and before the owned object. Dean vo un kanis = Dean's dog.
vong : yonder, distant.
viyt/viyti/viythyu : white colour or white coloured.
ya : yes. Shortcode : y
yahn/yahni/yahnhyu : yellow colour or yellow coloured. .
yak/yakte : to talk (duoverb)
yay, nay : alternatives of ya/ye and no/ne.
ye, ne : alternatives of ya and no.
yu : you; second person pronoun, either singular or plural. Shortcode : u. Also represents the dipthong /ju/ in Diinlang.
yu-em/yu-emz : construction used when it desired to distinguish that an inclusive-we is being used. Literally, “you-me”.
yuz : you (plural), y'all, youse; second person pronoun used when it is desired to make clear that more than a single individual is being addressed .
za : female third person singular pronoun for animates.
zau : subjunctive/conditional preverbal marker.
zaz : female third person plural pronoun for animates.
zhan : to be able to.
ze : neuter third person singular pronoun for animates. Shortcode : z
zez : neuter third person plural pronoun for animates. Shortcode : zz
zo : male third person singular pronoun for animates.
zoz : male third person plural pronoun for animates.